Tip 1: How to weld fish karluk fish glue
Tip 1: How to weld fish karluk fish glue
Painting paintings inevitably grow old, whetherDali, Vasnetsov or Rubens. Restoration of paintings in the workshops under the museums is constantly, while using a very old natural product - fish glue Karluk.
Fish glue and restorationFish glue is widely used in the restorationbusiness and practice of painters. This substance is distinguished by its strong adhesive ability even at low concentration, resistance to burning and darkening. But, like any other substance based on organic matter, such an adhesive is predisposed to decay and decay. Karluk is made of leather, bones, a swimming bladder and fish scales. The best quality grades of glue are made from beluga, sturgeon and catfish.
Preparation of fish glue KarlukPrepare antiseptics in advance, they are needed toslow down the decay process. Antiseptics in this case are: boric, carbolic and salicylic acids, creosote oil, sulem, formalin and hrompik. Any of these substances is introduced into the prepared adhesive solution and preserves it. Please note that after cooking you should get translucent plates, similar to wood tar. It is quite difficult to weld fish glue at home. In many treatises the formulation is inaccurate and too confusing, while others require the presence of ingredients that are difficult to obtain independently. In addition, the process of preparation is also very laborious and requires knowledge of all the nuances. All these facts together make the process of brewing glue at home almost impossible. Therefore, the plates of the carluk are better to buy and weld from it a special glue for duplication, which is used for priming the tree and strengthening the picturesque layers of canvases and icons. Cut the purchased fishy glue into small pieces and drop it into the pot-glue stick. Fill the granules with water by a mass of approximately 1: 1, the liquid must completely hide them. Leave it for 5-15 hours. The glue should soften, swell and settle to the bottom. Mix the mixture together with the saucepan to a water bath, put it on a stove and heat it over low heat. Do not bring to a boil, otherwise the fiber will dissolve and the glue will become rough, absolutely unsuitable for restoration. Strain the solution through the cheesecloth. For the treatment of wood, the glue can be diluted with hot water to a concentration of 1:24. Work better with the solution is not colder than 20oC. The remains of the carluque are not used for the second time. When the glue cools down, enter antiseptics, if you chose acids, give preference to 2% solutions. Pure crystalline boric acid needs very little - 0.5-1% of the total volume of the solution. This mixture is used for the first sizing of the canvas for duplication. To paste the picture itself, add honey in the proportions of 1: 7-1: 5, but not more. If you pour too much honey, it can provoke an early appearance of mold. Pay attention to the fact that when frozen, the fish glue leaves a film on the surface. If you cover the picture with glue again, the canvas can change the intensity and shades of its color range.
Tip 2: Siberian fish pie with broth
It is much more useful to think of red fishwhite, motivating a large content in the first useful human fatty omega-3 acids. Inexpensive sea white fish is very rich in phosphorus, iodine, vitamin D, and also easily digestible protein, which saves us from extra pounds. And dishes from such fish as hake, navaga, cod, lemonema are obtained - just delicious!
You will need
- - 2 eggs
- - 1 tsp. Sahara
- - a glass of milk
- - 1.5 bags of dry yeast
- - 0.5 kg of flour
- - 600 g of cod fillets
- - 3 heads of onions
- - butter
- - 1 liter of water
- - 250 g fish bones (for broth)
- - 1 carrot
- - 1 clove of garlic
- - bell pepper, sea salt, bay leaf
- - greenery
Cook fish broth, for what in a saucepanpour 1 liter of water and place in it fish bones, carrots, onions, garlic, seasonings and cook for about an hour. Cook the broth and decorate the finely chopped greens.
To prepare the dough in a deep ceramicMix bowl, eggs, yeast, milk, butter and sugar and mix all the ingredients until smooth. The resulting test, shape the ball, return it back to the bowl, loosely cover and set aside for a while in a warm place.
Next, prepare the filling. Fillets of cod fry together with onions in vegetable oil, salt, cut into small pieces. Add the chopped greens to the prepared filling.
Preheat the oven to 180 degrees. Divide the dough in half and roll each into a rectangular shape.
Cover the bottom of the mold with the first rectangle, then lay out the prepared stuffing and cover the cake with the second layer. Lubricate the top layer of the dough with butter and send it to the oven for 20 minutes.
Tip 3: How to weld flour glue
Despite the appearance in stores of a huge variety of wallpaper adhesives, glue from flour or starch is still popular. Unlike purchased, it allows you to glue wallpaper even to surfaces covered with oil paint or linseed oil.
You will need
- - rye or wheat flour;
- - water;
- - cooker;
- - dishes;
- - Joiner's glue;
- - PVA glue;
- - gauze or sieve.
For cooking the glue, take the rye or wheat flour of coarse grinding. In extreme cases, you can take any other flour, but the adhesive properties of the finished paste in this case may be less pronounced.
In a cup, dilute 200 grams of flour with a smallamount of cold water. Try not to have lumps, for this, add water gradually, to the density of sour cream or kefir, and carefully knead with a spatula or spoon.
In an enameled pot, pour a liter of water andbring to a boil. Stirring the water with a spoon, gradually pour the diluted flour into it. Infuse the solution with a thin trickle to form as less lumps.
Intensively stir the paste for 2-3 minutes, thenremove it from the fire. Leave it to cool at room temperature to 30-40 ° C, then strain through gauze or a sieve. Note, if you use the paste hot, the pattern or paint on the wallpaper is deformed.
To improve the adhesive properties of the solution,add PVA glue or carpentry glue to it, in the calculation of 10-20 grams per liter of paste. In this case, dilute the flour in cold water and add to boiling water, stirring constantly. Separately, dissolve the glue in the water and pour it into the resulting paste. Continue to cook the mixture, not forgetting to stir all the time. When the paste begins to acquire a bluish shade and bubble, remove it from the heat and cool.
If you need to glue light wallpaper and need a clear glue, use potato starch instead of flour. Cook it in the same way as the flour paste.
Tip 4: Soup from canned fish
Today in the store at reasonable prices, you canbuy anything - meat, chicken, fresh fish. Therefore, canned fish are not in high esteem. But they remain as delicious as before. And chemistry with soy in them do not put, in contrast to canned meat. Soup from canned fish from the 80's and 90's, in those days, canned fish were considered almost a delicacy and they tried to feed the whole family, and therefore - added to different dishes as a constituent ingredient.
You will need
- - fennel;
- - laurel leaves - 5 pieces;
- - salt;
- - small bulb - 1 piece;
- - Medium potatoes - 5 pcs;
- - canned fish - 1 can (250 g);
- - water - 2 liters.
Finely chop the onions. Put a pan of water on the fire, let it boil and pour in onions. Cover the pan with a lid, lower the fire to the minimum. If desired, you can grate the carrot in a saucepan.
While the onions are being cooked, peel and wash the potatoes, cut into small cubes. Put the potatoes in a saucepan.
Add fire to the maximum, when the water boils - reduce to a minimum. Cook the potatoes until ready for about 12 minutes.
You can add in the soup millet, rice or vermicelli,then the dish will be more satisfying. Fish with a fork in the bank as you can. As a result, small pieces must be obtained. Choose solid large bones from fish. Add the fish pieces to the broth.
Put the bay leaf, salt. Cook for a minute, turn off the heat and let stand soup for 5 minutes. Serving soup from canned fish to the table, add to the plate of finely chopped dill.
Tip 5: How to cook a paste
A paste prepared from flour or starch, withold times was used as a glue for paper (and, in particular, wallpaper paste). Even now, when it seems that you can find any glue that you want on the market, the paste remains popular. How to make a paste yourself?
You will need
- Flour or starch
- Joiner glue or PVA glue - on request
To make one liter of paste, let's take150-200 grams of flour (most often - wheat, but you can use rye) or starch. Thoroughly sift and dilute in a small amount of cold water, gently stirring until the lumps disappear.
Now flour or starch should be "brewed". To do this, pour boiling water into the resulting translucent mass with a thin trickle, not forgetting to constantly mix the future paste. We bring the volume to one liter. If the paste turns out to be dense - the amount of water can be increased.
If you want to get a paste with increasedgluing ability - in paste it is possible to add dilute in water joiner's glue (50 - 100 gram). The resulting mixture must be boiled over low heat until it begins to bubble. Graspability of the paste can also be increased by adding a small amount of PVA glue.
If, despite continuous stirring,The paste still came out lumpy - strain it through a sieve or gauze. Give the resulting glue a little cool, remove the film formed on its surface - and the paste is ready for use!
Please note that the paste is betterprepare immediately before use. First, it is optimally used in a warm form, and secondly, it is stored for a very short time. In hot summer weather the paste can be sour already the next day.
Tip 6: How to cook canned fish
To pamper yourself with appetizing canned fish, there is absolutely no need to arrange a shopping trip. Why buy them ready, when, in the presence of a certain skill, cook fish canned goods you can and in your kitchen?
You will need
- Small fish
- spice </ li>
- vegetable oil or tomato paste </ li>
- Bay leaf </ li>
- bulb onions </ li>
- glass jars with lids
For the preparation of canned food from fish productsyou will have to stock up on fish (preferably not too large), onion, vegetable oil. You will also need salt, tomato paste, bay leaf. Clear the fish, release it from the entrails. Then the fish should be salted and in such condition to hold at least night.
Prepare suitable glassbanks (suitable for half a liter capacity). Slice the onion rings. Place onion, bay leaf, tomato paste (about two spoons), fill the same amount with vegetable oil, if you decide to do it canned goods on oil, and not on paste.
Place the fish in the cans as tightly as possible. Then cover them with lids, but not too tightly, after which the jars should be placed in the oven for sterilization. Instead of an oven, you can use a conventional stove or stove.
After such sterilization, your canned goods almost ready. For longer storage, roll them properly. However, canned goods from fish, cooked in this way, can be used for food right after production.
But the way to make at homesprats. Take small fish, wash it. Scale does not need to be removed. You will need enamelware, for example, a pan in which you have to lay out the fish in rows. Slice the onion rings and place it on the bottom of the pan.
Each layer of fish should be salted separately. Add pepper, bay leaf, other spices to taste. Top with one or two tablespoons of vegetable oil. Fill the fish with the whole pot, lay another layer of onion on top of the fish. It remains to pour half a glass of vinegar into the pan. Water is not required. Now you need to torment our culinary masterpiece for at least three hours on a slow fire.
Cooked canned goods spread on pre-cooked jars, after which they should be cooled. Roll up cans is not necessary, polyethylene covers are quite suitable. Bon Appetit!
Tip 7: How to cook fish soup with meatballs
Fish soup with meatballs is not only useful, but also very tasty. It is perfect for those who follow their shape.
You will need
- - fish broth - 1 l;
- - Butter - 2 tablespoons;
- - egg - 1 piece;
- - Carrots - 1 piece;
- - onion - 2 pieces;
- - celery root - 100 g;
- - white bread - 2 pieces;
- - Milk - 1/2 cup;
- - salt;
- - pepper.
First you need to cook fish broth. Meanwhile, while he is brewing, you need to pour the milk into a cup and soak the bread in it. After the broth is ready, lay out of it boiled fish and mix it with slightly pressed bread. Put this mixture in a food processor and chop it.
Peel and grind one of the bulbs. Then heat the frying pan and fry it on it for 3 minutes, stirring constantly. Egg beat and whip slightly. Add the beaten egg and fried onions to the fish mince. Season the mixture with salt and pepper and mix. From the mass obtained, roll in the hands meatballs, whose diameter is approximately 2 centimeters.
The second onion and carrots cut into cubes. Bring the broth to a boil, add the vegetables, as well as salt and pepper, if necessary. Cook for 10 minutes, then put the meatballs into it and cook just as much. Fish soup with meatballs is ready!